Norman Schofield

Norman Schofield

Professor of Political Science
Dr. William Taussig Professor of Political Economy
Litt. D. (Doctor of Letters), Liverpool University
Doctorat d’Etat en Sciences Economiques, Universite de Caen
PhD, Essex University
research interests:
  • Formal Theory
  • Comparative Politics

contact info:

office hours:

  • By Appointment

mailing address:

  • Washington University
    CB 1063
    One Brookings Drive
    St. Louis, MO 63130-4899

​Professor Schofield is currently working on topics in the theory of social choice, political economy, and democracy. He is director of the Center in Political Economy.

Norman Schofield is Director of the Center in Political Economy, the William R. Taussig Professor of Political Economy, and Professor in the Departments of Economics and Political Science. He is currently working on topics in the theory of social choice, political economy, and democracy. In 2003-4 he was the Fulbright distinguished professor at Humboldt University in Berlin, and has recently held fellowships at ICER in Turin, and at the Hoover Institution at Stanford. In Spring 2008 he was the visiting Leitner Professor at Yale University.

His earlier books include Multiparty Government (with Michael Laver, in 1990), Social Choice and Democracy (1985), and three co-edited volumes: Political Economy: Institutions, Information, and Representation (1993) ,and Social Choice, Welfare and Ethics (1995), (both with Cambridge University Press), and Collective Decision Making (Kluwer, 1996). His more recent books include Mathematical Methods in Economics and Social Choice ( Springer in 2003). Architects of Political Change (2006), Multiparty Democracy (with Itai Sened, 2006), both with Cambridge University Press, The Spatial Model of Politics (Routledge, 2008), and The Political Economy of Democracy and Tyranny (Oldenbourg. 2009). He just co-edited a special issue of Social Choice and Welfare on Elections and Bargaining. A book entitled Leadership or Chaos, with Gallego, includes analyses of elections in Britain, Canada, the US, Turkey,  Russia and Poland, and was published by Springer in August 2011.  Two co-edited volumes on political economy, one with Caballero and one with Falaschetti and Rutten, were published by Springer and Routledge, respectively, in July 2011. He has been the recipient of a number of NSF awards, most recently one on electoral politics and regime change.

Selected Publications


  • Social Choice and Democracy Springer 1986
  • Multiparty Government: the politics of coalition in Europe (with Michael Laver) OUP 1990, reprinted Michigan UP (1998).
  • Mathematical Methods in Economics and Social Choice. Vol. 17 in Studies in Economic Theory, Springer 300 pp. 2nd Edition,  October2013. 
  • Architects of Political Change: Constitutional Quandaries and Social Choice Theory. Cambridge University Press, 317 pp June, 2006. 
  • Multiparty Democracy: Elections and Legislative Politics (co-authored with I. Sened). Cambridge University Press .223pp August, 2006. 
  • The Spatial Model of  Politics. Routledge (Volume 95 in the Routledge Series of Political Economy) Abingdon UK and New York . January  2008 ,320pp. Hardback 
  •  The Political Economy of Democracy and Tyranny, Oldenbourg: Munich. 350pp.  January 2009. Paperback. 
  • PolEcon of Democracy(edited with Aragones et al. 2008, Barcelona)
  • Rationality (issue of SCW, edited with Nachbar, Salles and Wooders, 2001) 
  • PolEcon of Elections (edited with Gallego and Kilgour, 2011, SCW) 
  • PolEcon of Institutions (edited with Caballero,  July 2011,Springer) 
  • Advances in Political Economy (edited with Caballero and Kselman 2013, springer 
  • Political Economy (ed with Rutten and Fallaschetti July 2011, Routledge) 
  • Leadership or Chaos (with Gallego, springer,July2011) 
  • Political Economy of Governance: Institutions, Democracy and Elections
    edited by Norman Schofield and Caballero(Springer,2014)
  • Political Economy of Social Choices ( edited by Schofield and Gallego Springer. in press)


  • Spatial Model of the US election in 2012 (with Jeong Hyun Kim (published SST July 2015)
  • Modelling Elections in Canada (with McAlister and Jeon Public Choice, published, 2014) 
  • Canadian heart (with Mcalister, jeon and Gallego Springer 2013) 
  • Trade policy divergence ( with Galiani and Gustavo, JPET, published, 2014) 
  • Modeling elections in Turkey (with Betul Demikaya Springer 2013) 
  • Probability of a fit Choice (RED, 2013) 
  • Caucasus (JEPOP April 2012, with Gallego, Jeon et al.)
  • US elections 2000 and 2004 (with Claassen, Ozdemmir and Gallego, Springer July 2011) 
  • Post-Communist Regimes(with Tavits and Ozdemir, Springer 2011) 
  • Anocracies and Autocracies(with Gallego: 2013) 
  • Moral Sentiments and Climate (Harvard College Economics review 2011)
  • Chaos or stability (Czech Economic Review 2011) 
  • UK elections 2005 and 2010 (Electoral stud 2011,30:484-496 with Gallego and Jeon)
  • US election 2008 and Israel (SCW 2011, with Claassen et al) 
  • Turkey (SCW 2011, with Gallego et al) 
  • Support for political leaders (with Schnidman, HOEC 28, 2011)
  • "A stochastic Model of the 2007 Russian Duma election" (with Alexei Zakharov) Public Choice 142 (2010): 177-194. 
  • "Social Orders" SCW 34 (2010): 503-536. 
  • Applications of a formal model (with Claassen, Ozdemir and Zakharov, 2010, IJMS) 
  • "Formal Models of Elections and Political Bargaining" (with Ugur Ozdemir) Czech Economic Review 3 (2009):207-242. 
  • Modelling Authoritarian Regimes (PPE, 2008, with Micah Levinson) 
  • "An Activist Model of Democracy" in The Political Economy of Democracy, ed E.Aragones et al,  Barcelona: BBVA Foundation (2009). 
  • "Switching Equilibria" in Legislative Parties ed Heller and Mershon, Macmillan (2009)
  • The Transformation of the Republican and Democratic Coalitions in the US (with Gary Miller) Perspectives on Politics 6(2008):433-450 
  • Divergence in the Spatial Stochastic Model of Voting," in Power, Freedom and Voting, Matthew Braham and Frank Steffen, eds. (2008) 
  • "Social Choice" in the UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Systems. Oxford (2008)
  • "Democratic Paradoxes.," in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. L.Blume and S.Durlauf, eds. Macmillan, 2008). 
  • Modelling Political Economy (HOEC 2008) 
  • "The Mean Voter Theorem: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Convergent Equilibrium." The Review of Economic Studies ,74(3). (July 2007): 965-980. 
  • "A Model of Political Competition with Activists applied to elections in Argentina , 1985-1995." (with Guido Cataife). MathSoc Sci, 53(3) ( May, 2007): 213-231.
  • "Elections and Activists Coalitions in the United States." ( with Gary Miller). The American Journal of Political Science 51(3) (July 2007):518-531. 
  • "Political Equilibrium with Electoral Uncertainty." Social Choice and Welfare 28 (April, 2007):461-490. 
  • "Social Choice and Elections." In A Positive Change in Political Science:The Legacy of Richard D.McKelvey's Writings,J.Alt,J.Aldrich and A.Lupia,eds. University of Michigan Press (September, 2007) pp. 205-222. 
  • "Equilibria in the Spatial Stochastic Model of Voting with Party Activists."The Review of Economic Design.10 (3)(December 2006): 183-203. 
  • Local Equilibria 
  • BJPS (2005, with Sened) 
  • EJPR (2005, with Sened 
  • Jour Theor Pol 2004 
  • Elect Stud 2005 
  • Condorcet SCW 2005 
  • Activists and partisan realignment (with Gary Miller, APSR, 2003) 
  • PPE (2003) 
  • Political Studies (2003) 
  • Politics and Society (2002) 
  • Politics and Society (1999) 
  • The election of Lincoln in 1860(with Kim Dixon, Homo Oeconomicus 17,2001)
  • The probability of a fit choice (RED, published 2013) 
  • Quandaries of gridlock and Leadership (published 2013)
  • Canada election (with Kevin McAlister (published 2013) 
  • Turkey election (with Betul Demirkya, published 2013) 
  • Handbook of social choice 2002) 
  • AOR (2002) 
  • AOR (1998) 
  • Public Choice (1998, with Martin et al)
  • New Int Econ Order 
  • Factor endowments and democracy (with Galiani and Torrens (JPET published, 2014)
  • The VCL model of the 2004 election in Canada(with McAlister , Gallego and Jeon (Public Choice, published, 2014)
  • Generic existence (Springer 2001) 
  • heart of a polity,1996
  • research program
  • 2009 election in Germany (with A.Kurella, 2014) 
  • McKelvey and Schofield Econometrica) 
  • Britain (2005 (with Labzina, Springer. 2014)
  • Trading Portfolios (with Demirkaya, Springer)
  • Climate Change, Collapse, and Social Choice Theory(forthcoming Czech Econ Review) 
  • Does the 1 Person 1 Vote Principle Apply? (With Turner and Gallego.2014)
  • Convergence (with Gallego) JTP April 2016
  • Elections (with Gallego) Math Soc Science (2016)


  • Hallsworth Senior Research Fellow at Manchester University 1982-3; Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at Caltech 1983-4; Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Science, Stanford 1988-9.
  • Elected Fellow to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. April 2005.Recipient with G.Miller of the Jack L.Walker prize for the best article on Political Parties in the APSR, 2004. and the Riker prize for contributions to political theory 2002.


  • Fall 2014 ps 3551, 4551, and 5551
  • ps 3552
  • Spring 2015, PS 4552/5552
  • Fall 2015 PS 5551
  • Spring 2016 PS 4552 and 5552
  • Fall 2016 4551, and 5551
  • Spring 2017 4552 and 5552
  • Fall 2017 5551